Jharkhand - History and Information

Jharkhand is popularly known as Vananchal (Meaning Land Of woods). The 28th state of the Indian Union Jharkhand was carved out from the state of Bihar and Jharkhand was Brought into Existance by the Bihar Reorganization act on November 15, 2000. The date is important as it also marks the birth anniversary of the legendary Bhagwan Birsa Munda.

Jharkhand is located in eastern India and is surrounded by Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the West, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. The state covers a geographical area of 79.70 Lakh Hect.

Many parts of the Jharkhand state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau.  Chota Nagpur plateau is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand.

Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support the population of tigers and Asian Elephants.

Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:

Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumeritilaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad Black soil, found in Rajmahal area, Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum


Jharkhand Tourism :

The state capital is Ranchi. The state is famously known as land of woods, is a nice place to visit. Most of the parts of the state are covered with tribal area.

Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east.

The state lies at 24' 3" to 24' 5" North Latitude 86' 9" to 87' 4" East Longitude and is 2019 mts. above the sea level.

The state is mostly covered by the forests, wildlife sanctuaries, minerals and industries.  


Tourist Places :

Parasnath :

An important destination for Jain pilgrims, Parasnath is located at a distance of 179 km from Giridih district. The place Parasnath is named after Parsvanatha, the 23rd Jain Tirthankara who attained nirvana here.

There are 24 Jain Temples each one dedicated to one of Jain Tirthankara. The temple on the highest peak is of Parsvanatha.

Pilgrims begin their journey from Madhuban. Madhuban is a stopover at the foot of the hill from where people have to walk. It takes around three hours to reach Parasnath.


Hazaribagh wildlife sanctuary

Hazaribagh means 'thousand tigers' Hazaribagh is famous for its wildlife sanctuary. The place is situated in the rising and falling of Chhota Nagpur Plateau. The sanctuary is 190 sq km and was established in 1954. The sanctuary is home to animals like wild boar, niglai and leopard. The sanctuary is a thick forest area so it's a safe place for birds to live.

The Best Season to visit the sanctuary is from October to March as the climate is pleasant at that time.Prior permission from the divisional forest officer (west division) is required to enter the sanctuary.

The other places to visit are:

Canari Hill (5 kms): Cycle Rickshaws available from the Hazaribagh town.

Rajrappa falls (89 kms):
State Transport Bus operates daily an early morning service to this place from the town. or Other than Private Tourists Cabs and Local Transportation.

Suraj Kund (72 kms):
Hot spring. Buses are available from the town.

Palamau :

Palamau national park

The Palamau National Park is located in the western part of the Chotanagpur plateau. The park is spread over a core area of 250 square kilometers and is also known as the Betla National Park. The Palamau National Park was brought under Project Tiger in the year 1973. It is among the first nine Tiger Reserves of the country. The core area of the park was declared as a National Park in September 1989.

Best Time to visit the national park is from February-April.

Dhanbad :

Dhanbad is one of the most important industrial centres in India. In and around Dhanbad is the richest mineral wealth of India.

Places to visit

Central Mining Research StationCentral Fuel Reaserch InstituteDirectorate General of Mines SafetyMining College

The collieries, various technical institutions and research centres of high order, attractives neighbourhood and the landscapes are the attractions of this industrial city.

  • Topchanchi: 37 kms. This is a beautiful lake, surrounded by green hills.

  • Jharia: Suburts of Dhanbad, is rich colliery centre & has entensive commerce.

  • Sindri: 30 kms. Fertiliser & other factories & Bihar Institute of Technology.

  • Maithon Dam: 52 kms. D.V.C Dam.

  • Panchet Dam: D.V.C Dam.


Jagannathpur Temple & Hill

The Jagannathpur Temple and Hill is about 10 km from Ranchi G.P.O. The old temple of lord Jagannath ,built in 1691 in the architectural style of Puri Temple stands like a fort on the top of the hill. The car/chariot festival of the Jagannathpur Temple is same as that of the Jagannath temple of Puri (Orissa) and draws a big crowd comprising of tribals and non-tribals.

HEC township nearby is an added attraction.


Angrabadi is a temple complex which accommodates the temples of Lords Ganpati, Ram-Sita and Hanuman and Shiva. The Shankracharya Swami Swarupanand Saraswati, having been captivated by serene, placid and celestial beauty of Angrabadi rechristened it as Amreshwar Dham.

Sun Temple

Sun Temple is at a distance of about 39 km from Ranchi on Tata Road near Bundu. The elegant Sun temple is fashioned in the form of huge chariot with richly decorated 18 wheels and seven lives like horses ready to take of.

A pond is located within the temple premises serving as a sacred place for Chhathavratis. The place is actually a nature's bounty to the people of Chotanagpur. The all weather motorable road up to the temple premises is likely to attract tourists who will be captivated to behold the newly built sun temple in the placid and serene surrounding leading to its celestial beauties.


Falls :-

Dassam Falls

Dassam falls are also known as Dassam Ghagh. Dassam falls are about 40 km. away from Ranchi on Tata Road. The Kanchi River falls from a height of about 144 feet at the Dassam falls.The tourists are warned not to take bath in the falls or at least be careful while bathing in the stream.

Hundru Fall

Hundru falls is about 28 km. away from Ranchi town. The Swarnarekha River falls from a height of 320 feet.

Hirni Falls

Hirani Falls are about 70 km from Ranchi on way to Chakradharpur. Situated in a dense forest area, Hirni has been favoured by nature for scenic beauties. The tourists are carried away by emotions and flight of imagination while observing Hirni.


Ranchi Hill

Ranchi at an altitude of 2140 feet from sea level, is a popular health and holiday resort and a place of sacred pilgrimage. A panoramic view of the town can be beheld from the hill top. The Shiva Temple situated on the top of the hill, is an added attraction for the devotees.

Tagore Hill

Tagore hills are about 3 km. from the Ranchi G.P.O. The Tagore Hill is about 300 ft. high. As the hill is associated with a history pertaining to Tagore family, it is known as Tagore Hill. A number of books have been written by Rabindra Nath Tagore sitting on the top of the hill. At the foot of the hill are situated the Ramakrishna Mission Ashram and its office and center of Divyayan and agrarian Vocational Institute.


The Ranchi museum has a wide range that exhibits collections of artifacts and provide a comprehensive picture of peoples lifestyles and social structure

Natural Resoureces :

Jharkhand is famous for its rich mineral resources like Uranium, Mica, Bauxite, Granite, Gold, Silver, Graphite, Magnetite, Dolomite, Fireclay, Quartz, Fieldspar, Coal (32% of India), Iron, Copper (25%of India) etc. Forests and woodlands occupy more than 29% of the state which is amongst the highest in India.  

Rivers :

Damodar, Mayurakshi, barakar, Koyal, sankh, Son, Auranga, More, Karo, Bansloi, South Koel, Kharkai, Swarna Rekha, Ganga, Gumani, Batane are the important rivers flowing through the state.


Forests in Jharkhand extend over 23600 sq kms representing 29.61 % of the total geographical area of the State of which 82 % are Protected Forest and 17.5 % are Reserve Forest with a small amount of unclassed forests (33.49 sq.km.).

Jharkhand is endowed with vast natural resources specially the vast variety of minerals ranging from Iron ore, Coal, Copper ore, Mica, Bauxite, Fire clay, Graphite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, Lime stone, Uranium & other minerals. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country. The total value of mineral production is amounted to over Rs.3000 crores.

Climate : Climate of the state in general is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. There are regional variations and some parts of the state like Ranchi, Netarhat, and Parasnath have a pleasant climate even during the summers. Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September that accounts for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state.



Fairs & Festivals


Sarhul is celebrated during the Spring Season when the Shaal trees get new leaves. Sarhul festival is the worship of the village deity who is considered to be the protector of the tribes.

The deities are worshipped with shaal flowers. The shaal flowers represent the brotherhood and friendship among villagers. The Priest  is called Pahan and he distributes shaal flowers to every villager. The Prasad is then distributed among the villagers.



Karam Devta, the God of Power, youth and youthfulness is worshipped during the festival. The festival is held on the 11th day of the phases of Moon in the Bhadra month. The groups of young villagers go to the jungle and collect the items required for Puja i.e. wood, fruits and flowers. During this entire period people sing and dance in groups. The entire valley seems to be dancing with the drumbeats. This is one of the rare examples of such a vital and vibrant youth festival in Jharkhand's Tribal area.At the same time, the unmarried young tribal girls celebrate the Jawa festival. This is held mainly in expectation of good fertility and better household. The unmarried girls decorate a small basket with germinating seeds. It is believed that the worship for good germination of the grains would increase the fertility. The girls offer green melons to the Karam deity as a symbol of  which reveals the primitive expectation of human being, i.e. grains and children. The entire tribal area of Jharkhand becomes tipsy during this time.

Tusu Parab or Makar

This festival is mostly seen in the area between Bundu, Tamar and Raidih area of Jharkhand. TUSU is a harvest festival held during the winter in the last day of Poush month. It is also for the unmarried girls. Girls decorate a wooden/ bamboo frame with coloured paper and then contribute it to the nearby hilly river.

 Bhagta Parab

This festival comes between the period of spring and summer. Among the tribal people of Jharkhand this festival is best known as the worship of Budha Baba.

People fast during the day and carry the bathing Pahan the priest, to the tribal mandir called Sarana Mandir. The Pahan sometimes called Laya, gets out of the pond, the devotees make a chain, locking their thighs with each other and come forward to offer their bare chest to Laya for walk over.

After the worship in the evening, devotees take part in dynamic and vigorous Chhau dance with lots of gymnastic actions and masks. The next day is full of primitive sports of bravery.

The devotees pierce hooks on skin and get tied at one end of a long horizontal wooden pole, which is hanging on the top of a vertical Shal wood pole. The height goes up to 40 feet. The other end of the pole which is connected with a rope is pulled around the pole by the people and the tied devotee display the breath-taking dance in the sky.

This festival is more popular in the Tamar region of Jharkhand.


This festival is perhaps the first festival of Jharkhand in the calendar year. It is a festival of sowing seeds in the field.

Farmers start sowing seeds from this day but there is no dance or song like other tribal festivals but just a few rituals. There are some other festivals like Rajsawala Ambavati and Chitgomha which are also celebrated with Rohin.


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